Films that Promote Peace & Nonviolence


Schindler's List

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Schindler's List
Steven SpielbergLiam NeesonBen KingsleyRalph Fiennes
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Based on a true story, Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List stars Liam Neeson as Oskar Schindler, a German businessman in Poland who sees an opportunity to make money from the Nazis' rise to power. He starts a company to make cookware and utensils, using flattery and bribes to win military contracts, and brings in accountant and financier Itzhak Stern (Ben Kingsley) to help run the factory. By staffing his plant with Jews who've been herded into Krakow's ghetto by Nazi troops, Schindler has a dependable unpaid labor force. For Stern, a job in a war-related plant could mean survival for himself and the other Jews working for Schindler. However, in 1942, all of Krakow's Jews are assigned to the Plaszow Forced Labor Camp, overseen by Commandant Amon Goeth (Ralph Fiennes), an embittered alcoholic who occasionally shoots prisoners from his balcony. Schindler arranges to continue using Polish Jews in his plant, but, as he sees what is happening to his employees, he begins to develop a conscience. He realizes that his factory (now refitted to manufacture ammunition) is the only thing preventing his staff from being shipped to the death camps. Soon Schindler demands more workers and starts bribing Nazi leaders to keep Jews on his employee lists and out of the camps. By the time Germany falls to the allies, Schindler has lost his entire fortune -- and saved 1100 people from likely death. Schindler's List was nominated for twelve Academy Awards and won seven, including Best Picture and a long-coveted Best Director for Spielberg, and it quickly gained praise as one of the finest American movies about the Holocaust. Mark Deming

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TV Guide Review: The seven Academy Awards and virtually unanimous acclaim accorded to SCHINDLER'S LIST were entirely merited. Director Steven Spielberg has achieved something close to the impossible--a morally serious, aesthetically stunning historical epic that is nonetheless readily accessible to a mass audience.

In 1941, the Jews of Nazi-occupied Kracow are dispossessed of their businesses and herded into a tiny, squalid ghetto. Small-time entrepreneur Oskar Schindler (Liam Neeson), a gentile, conceives of a get-rich-quick scheme that involves Itzhak Stern (Ben Kingsley), an accountant and member of the local judenrat (Jewish council), and an enamelware plant where cheap labor is supplied by ghetto Jews.

Stern sees a way to save Jewish lives: factory employees, classified as essential workers, are exempt from "resettlement" in concentration camps. Against his better judgment, Schindler looks the other way as Stern adds musicians, academics, rabbis, and cripples to the factory rolls. Within a year, the Final Solution is well underway, and a monstrous Nazi commandant, Amon Goeth (Ralph Fiennes), brutally liquidates the ghetto and ships surviving Jews to a forced labor camp. Schindler bribes the cynical Goeth to permit re-establishment of the factory within camp walls, and business continues more or less as before. But Schindler is changing, and at great risk to himself, he begins to take an active role in protecting his workers.

Though based on fact, SCHINDLER'S LIST is neither history, nor the "definitive" film version of the Holocaust some reviewers wanted it to be. It's an intensely personal meditation on the nature of heroism and moral choice, rendered on the kind of rich, dreamlike cinematic canvas that only Hollywood can realize. Far from a departure for Spielberg, SCHINDLER'S LIST is the fulfillment of his singular talent for achieving high seriousness--as with EMPIRE OF THE SUN--within and despite the constraints of corporate filmmaking.

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Thomas Keneallyís Schindlerís List is the historical account of Oskar Schindler and his heroic actions in the midst of the horrors of World War II Poland. Schindlerís List recounts the life of Oskar Schindler, and how he comes to Poland in search of material wealth but leaves having saved the lives of over 1100 Jews who would most certainly have perished. The novel focuses on how Schindler comes to the realization that concentration and forced labor camps are wrong, and that many people were dying through no fault of their own. This realization did not occur overnight, but gradually came to be as the business man in Oskar Schindler turned into the savior of the Jews that had brought him so much wealth. Schindlerís List is not just a biography of Oskar Schindler, but it is the story of how good can overcome evil and how charity can overcome greed.


Schindlerís List begins with the early life of Oskar Schindler. The novel describes his early family life in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and his adolescence in the newly created state of Czechoslovakia. It tells of his relationship with his father, and how his father left his mother. His mother is also described in great detail. Like many Germans in the south, she was a devout Catholic. She is described as being very troubled that her son would take after her estranged husband with his negligence of Catholicism. Oskar never forgave Hans, his father, for his abandonment of his mother , which is ironic considering that Oskar would do the same with his wife Emilie. In fact Hans and Oskar Schindlerís lives would become so much in parallel that the novel describes their relationship as ďthat of brothers separated by the accident of paternity.Ē Oskarís relationship with Emilie is also described in detail as is their marriage. The heart of the novel begins in October 1939 when Oskar Schindler comes to the Polish city of Cracow. It has been six weeks since the Germanís took the city, and Schindler sees great opportunity as any entrepreneur would. For Schindler, Cracow represents a place of unlimited possibilities because of the current economic disorder and cheap labor. Upon his arrival in Cracow he meets Itzak Stern, a Jewish bookkeeper. Schindler is very impressed with Stern because of his business prowess and his connections in the business community. Soon Schindler and Stern are on their way to the creation of a factory that would run on Jewish labor. Around this time, the persecution of the Jews of Poland begins with their forced relocation into ghettoes. This turns out to be timely for Schindler as now he is able to get very cheap labor. The next few years would go well for Schindler and his factory for they turned a great profit. In fact he made so much money that he is quoted as saying, ďIíve made more money than I could possibly spend in a lifetime.Ē His workers were also very happy. This is because ďSchindlerís JewsĒ were treated as humans as opposed to being treated as animals. For them, working in Schindlerís factory was an escape from the ghetto and from much German cruelty. They loved Schindler so much that his factory became known as a haven throughout the Jewish community.

 However, things began to go sour for Schindler, when the Germans ordered the liquidation of the ghettoes. Soon all of the Jews in the Cracow ghetto were relocated to the Plaszow labor camp. By this time Schindler had grown so affectionate toward his Jewish workers that he refused to hire Poles, and instead sought of a way to keep using the Jews that he had grown so accustomed to. As the Cracow Jews were relocated to the Plaszow labor camp, Oskar Schindler came into direct dealings with the campís director, Amon Goeth. He did not like Amon, but he tried to get in on his best side in order to keep using his Jews in his factory. Amon agreed to let Schindler use them, and thus saving his Jews from some of the harshness of the Plaszow labor camp. As the war began to go badly for the Germans, they decided to accelerate their ďfinal solutionĒ by sending the Jews to more sinister concentration camps such as Auchwitz. This is when Oskar Schindler finally comes to the realization that he had the power to help his people. The now enlightened Schindler decides to use his entire fortune to buy the lives of the Schindlerjuden in order to save them from the gas chambers of Auchwitz. This is how Schindlerís list came to be. 1100 Jewish names that had in some way touched his life were put on a list and bought. His plan was to send the 1100 Jews to his newly created ammunitions factory in his native Czechoslovakia. However, Schindlerís plan does not go smoothly for an entire train load of his women were accidentally shipped to Auchwitz instead of to his factory. Schindler then uses more of his diminishing financial recourses to try to get his Jews out of Auchwitz. He succeeds in doing this, and thus the Schindlerjuden have escaped the worse. Meanwhile in Czechoslovakia his plan continues in that he tricks the Germans into thinking that they were going to produce quality ammunition, but instead not one good shell was ever produced to help the German army. Gratefully, within a few months Hitler was dead and the Germans were defeated. Unfortunately, Oskar Schindler was now penniless for he had given everything in order to save as many Jews as possible.


Thomas Keneally wrote Schindlerís List to be more than just the story of a man and his heroic deeds, but also to show todayís world of the dangers of hatred. He emphasizes this latter point through his descriptions of how cruelly the Nazis treated the Jews. Keneally also tries to point out how one man can make a difference as is the case with Oskar Schindler. However, perhaps Keneallyís greatest objective with Schindlerís List is that the world should never forget Oskar Schindler and what he did for the Jews as well as for mankind. Schindlerís impact is so great that even the numerical facts are astonishing. In fact if one compares the number of direct descendants of the Schindlerjuden to the number of Jews alive in Poland after 1945, it is evident that there are more Schindlerjuden today than the total number of Jews in 1945 Poland. This statistical fact shows how greatly Schindler, who died in 1974, will be missed. Perhaps Keneally shares the Schindlerjudenís remorse for their savior by the way he ends his novel. Keneally ends the novel with the somber line, ďHe was mourned on every continent.Ē
Schindlerís List had a great effect on me personally. I thought that Thomas Keneally did an excellent job in making the reader feel the events of the time. Perhaps what I found to be most interesting in Schindlerís List is a question of morality. I began asking myself the question, would I be as heroic as Oskar Schindler if I were in his shoes? I think that this is exactly what Keneally wanted us to do; he wanted us to look at ourselves and analyze whatís inside. Historically, I find Schindlerís List to be very important not only because it is tells of a shameful time in western civilization, but also because the events that took place in the novel occurred only yesterday. After all fifty years is almost nothing in historical terms. Perhaps the novelís greatest strength is this feeling that the events that transpired in Schindlerís List are in fact modern history.
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Schindler's List 
Thomas Keneally

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Format: Paperback, 400pp.
ISBN: 0671880314
Publisher: Simon & Schuster Trade Paperbacks
Pub. Date: December  1993
Edition Desc : MVI TIE IN

In a new hardcover edition, here is the story of how Oskar Schindler, a German-Catholic industrialist, came to save more Jews from the gas chambers than any other single person during WWII. It is the story that Steven Spielberg turned into a seven Academy Award-winning film, and a milestone of Holocaust literature that touches the hearts and provokes the mind of all who read it. Photos throughout.


Learning Guide to:
   Schindler's List

Subjects: World/WW II; Biography;
Character Development: Courage; Rebellion;
Ethical Emphasis: Trustworthiness; Respect; Caring.

SELECTING THE MOVIE            Quick Discussion Question

Age: 15; Rated R; Drama; 1993; 195 minutes; B & W/Color; Available from Social Studies School Service.

Description: This film depicts the heroic actions of Oskar Schindler, a German war profiteer who, because of his fundamental humanity and great courage, saved more than 1,100 Jews from death in the Holocaust. The film is based on an exceptional "novel," Schindler's List by Thomas Keneally. The word "novel" has been applied to this book only because the dialogue and certain details are fictional. Mr. Keneally based the book closely on events reported to him by the "Schindlerjuden," people whose lives had been saved by Schindler and who were eyewitnesses to Schindler's heroic actions.

Benefits and Possible Problems: SERIOUS. This movie vividly describes the horror of the Holocaust. Schindler's List may cause viewers to cry, feel ill and have nightmares. But people must know about the Holocaust and experience it in some measure because there have been so many instances of mass atrocities since that time, including: the Kmer Rouge killings in Cambodia, the genocide against the Tutsis in Rwanda; and the dirty wars in Argentina and Chile. The recent "ethnic cleansing" in Bosnia-Herzegovina and in Kosovo is fresh evidence of the need of all mankind to remind itself of the holocausts of the past. If you feel that this film is too shocking, you might want to show children the 1978 CBS Docudrama "Holocaust" but we recommend Schindler's List.

There is also a scene in the film showing explicit sexuality.

Schindler was a hero because he repeatedly risked his life to save others and was able to resist the Nazi propaganda and security apparatus. However, Schindler started out as a sharp businessman willing to take advantage of others' misfortune, a drinker, a womanizer, and a gambler. One of the wonders of the Schindler story is how such an unlikely man became an example to us all.

Selected Awards: : 1993 Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director (Spielberg), Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Art Direction/Set Decoration, Best Cinematography, Best Film Editing, Best Original Score; 1993 British Academy Awards: Best Film, Best Director (Spielberg), Best Supporting Actor (Fiennes) Best Adapted Screenplay; 1994 Golden Globe Awards: Best Film-Drama, Best Director (Spielberg), Best Screenplay; 1993 Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards: Best Film, Best Cinematography; 1993 National Board of Review Awards: Best Film; 1993 New York Film Critics Awards: Best Film, Best Supporting Actor (Fiennes) Best Cinematography; 1993 Writers Guild of America: Best Adapted Screenplay; 1993 Academy Award Nominations: Best Actor (Neeson), Best Costume Design, Best Makeup, Best Sound, Best Supporting Actor (Fiennes); 1994 Golden Globe Award (Nominations): Best Actor-Drama (Neeson), Best Supporting Actor (Fiennes), Best Original Score; 1994 MTV Awards: Best Film, Breakthrough Performance (Fiennes).

Featured Actors: Liam Neeson, Ben Kingsley, Ralph Fiennes, Embeth Davidtz, Caroline Goodail, Jonathan Sagalle, Mark Ivanir.

Director: Steven Spielberg.


USING THE MOVIE

Helpful Background:

Oskar Schindler (1908 -1974) was an ethnic German born in the village of Zwittau in Sudetenland, a portion of Czechoslovakia with many German inhabitants. He was known in the village by the name "Gauner," which meant swindler or sharper. A Jewish woman who lived in the town and whose life Schindler later saved, said, "As a Zwittau citizen I never would have considered him capable of all these wonderful deeds."

Oskar Schindler was a member of the Nazi party. He arrived in Cracow, Poland, just after the collapse of the Polish Army and at the beginning of the German occupation. His first effort, as shown in the film, was to capitalize on the misfortune of the Jews who had recently been forbidden from engaging in business. As an added inducement for them to "invest" in his new business, he offered to employ the investors or their relatives in his factory. For years, relations between Schindler and his Jewish workers were circumspect. But as the lot of the Jews in Poland worsened, the workers at Schindler's factory noticed that they were somehow protected. Word of this spread through the Jewish community.

Schindler spent his evenings entertaining the SS and German Army officers. His apparent political reliability and his engaging personality made him popular among the Nazi elite. During the day Schindler would entertain officials and visitors to the factory, pouring them vodka and Schnapps, telling them that he knew how to get work out of the Jews and that he wanted more brought into his factory. In this way he managed to bring into the plant and save from the gas chamber intellectuals, artists, and the families and relatives of his workers.

Schindler's acts of kindness and bravado saved lives on a daily basis. It was very dangerous to intercede for Jews in Nazi Germany, but Schindler did repeatedly. Often he would say "Stop killing my good workers. We've got a war to win." One woman, Rena Finder, who was forced into slave labor at the age of ten, recalled that she was about to be shot by an SS guard for breaking a machine used to make bullet casings. Schindler saved her life, telling the guard: "You idiot, this little girl could not break that machine."

In 1943 the Cracow ghetto was ordered closed and many of the Jews were sent to the death camps. Those people able to work were moved to the forced labor camp at Plaszow, just outside the city. The conditions in Plaszow were terrible. Many workers died and there were frequent transfers to nearby Auschwitz. In the Spring of 1943 Schindler moved into an active phase of his antifascist efforts, conspiring directly with his accountant/manager Itzhak Stern and other employees to save Jews from extermination and to outwit Nazi officials. He bribed Amon Goeth, the commander of Plaszow, to allow him to set up a sub-camp for his workers at the factory, "to save time getting to the job." It was then easier to smuggle food and medicine into the factory. When Plaszow was slated to be shut down and its prisoners transferred to the death camps. Schindler, during a night of drinking, convinced the chief of the war equipment command for all of Poland that Plaszow's workshops were well suited for serious war production. This idea survived the General's hangover. Plaszow was converted to a war-essential concentration camp and the inmates were no longer slated to be transferred to Auschwitz for extermination.

But still, Stern had doubts about Schindler. These ended in late 1943. In August Schindler hosted visitors sent to him by the underground organization that the Joint Distribution Committee (an American Jewish welfare organization) operated in occupied Europe. Schindler told Stern to speak frankly and the men asked for a full report on anti-Semitic persecutions in Plaszow. Stern thought this was a foolish risk and resisted, but finally Schindler ordered him to write the report. Stern wrote everything he could remember, mentioning the names of the living and the dead. When the underground brought him answering letters from America and Palestine, any doubts that Stern had about the integrity and judgment of Schindler were answered.

Schindler, aided by his wife, Emilie, provided extra food and brought in medicine, all purchased on the black market. They allowed religious celebrations in the factory. The SS guards were given regular bribes to keep them from reporting what was happening.

When the tide turned on the Eastern Front and the German forces were in full retreat, Schindler convinced the authorities to permit him to move the factory and the camp to his home area of Sudetenland.

After the war, Schindler's talents of bonhomie and lobbying government officials were not as helpful in business as they had been during the war. His business ventures were not successful. The Schindlerjuden gave him money to buy a farm in Argentina but it failed in 1957. Schindler and his wife then separated and he returned to Europe, living part of the year in both Germany and part of the year in Israel. The Schindlerjuden and the State of Israel then supported Schindler. In the later years of his life, Schindler was honored as a "Righteous Gentile" by the Israelis and was the subject of veneration in that country.

Schindler had married his wife, Emilie in 1928. He was tall, handsome and had an eye for women. He was not faithful in his marriage. The film omits the role that Emilie Schindler played in Schindler's conversion to antifascism and in helping to care for the Schindlerjuden. Emilie fully supported what her husband did for his workers. She cooked and cared for the sick. She earned praise and a reputation of her own. She has written a book about her life with Schindler, entitled, Where Light and Shadow Meet. We have not read it.

Words and phrases: Sudeten German; Schindlerjuden; ghetto; forced labor camp; concentration camp; SS; Final Solution; Sabbath; Auschwitz, genocide, crimes against humanity.

Discussion Questions:
  1. [Standard Questions Suitable for Any Film].
  2. There have been many atrocities committed throughout history. The Holocaust was not the first or the last. Why is the Holocaust recalled with such horror?
  3. Has the Holocaust changed the actions of political leaders in the time since it occurred? How does this relate to the actions of NATO and the United Nations in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo?
  4. Why didn't the Allied Powers, who knew that mass killings were taking place, focus their firepower on the ovens and the killing operations? The answer has something to do with one of the major reasons that President Truman decided to drop atom bombs on Japan, an action which lead to the deaths of many civilians. See Learning Guide to Fat Man and Little Boy.
  5. In this film almost none of the Jewish characters that we get to know well are killed. Why is that? Given the power of this film, what would have been the effect on the audience, particularly those whose relatives were murdered in the Holocaust, had this occurred? How does your answer to this question relate to the decision to use black and white rather than color film?
  6. Why is this film shot mostly in black and white? What were the advantages to filming these events in black and white? Color is used four times in the film. Why are certain scenes shot in color?

    Character Development
  7. Quick Discussion Question: At the beginning of the war Schindler was a greedy high living war profiteer anxious to profit from the misfortune of the Jews. By the end of the war, what was his attitude toward money? What made him change?
  8. There was a theme that ran through most of Schindler's actions: his delight in women; his interest in good times and high living; his friendliness with everyone (including the Nazis); and his protection of the Jews who came to work in his factory. Can you describe what this was?
  9. Can you describe the personal relationship that developed between Itzhak Stern and Schindler?
  10. What was Schindler doing when he talked to Amon Goeth about power and told him that refraining from imposing punishment showed greater power than imposing it? Did Schindler's tactic work? Why not? What was the film trying to tell us through this series of incidents?
  11. How does the concept of "alien" or "other" work in the psychology of the perpetrators of the Holocaust and other atrocities and mass killings? Tell us how this concept works in the following published report from the attempted genocide of Tutsis in Rwanda. A Hutu village headman had married a Tutsi woman and they had three sons. When the killings of Tutsis began, an official from the central government came to the village headman and told him that unless he participated in the genocide he would be killed. The headman then sent his sons out of the house and killed their mother. Then, in front of the Hutus of the village, he personally murdered each of his sons.
  12. How does the idea that the victim is somehow regarded as "evil" affect all atrocities and mass killings?
  13. Define the concept of the "good German." Identify the "good Germans" in the film. Explain the psychology of compartmentalization.
  14. Schindler's wife, Emilie, who was very much his partner in his heroic efforts, said, "We only did what we had to do." How do you reconcile this statement with the actions of most of the German people who lived during the Second World War and who permitted the Holocaust to occur without protest. See Learning Guide to Judgment at Nuremberg.
  15. Schindler was a gambler and an opportunist who liked living on the edge and outsmarting the SS. Does the fact that he may have had an emotional predilection for connivance and for cheating the authorities take away any of the glory of his accomplishments? A similar comment can be made about Emilie Schindler, that she was to a certain extent simply following the lead of her husband and being a good wife. Does this take away any of the glory of her accomplishments?
  16. Is there a mystery to profound human goodness or evil, or can everything be explained by human psychology?

    Ethical Emphasis
    (Teachwithmovies.org is associated with Character Counts and uses The Six Pillars of Character to organize ethical principals.)

    The Discussion Questions Relating to Ethical Issues are designed to maximize the use of this film to teach ethical principles and critical viewing. Concepts from The Six Pillars of Character that are raised in this film are: Trustworthiness (Have the courage to do the right thing); Respect (Treat others with respect; follow the Golden Rule); and Caring (Be kind; Be compassionate and show you care; Help people in need)

  17. Elie Wiesel, a student of the Holocaust, has said that "indifference" is the greatest sin and punishment of the Holocaust. Can you explain what he meant by this? How does this concept relate to the scene in which Schindler arranges to have the condemned Jews in the overheated box cars hosed down with water? Why does this act amuse the Commandant and other SS officials as they sit in the shade and sip their iced drinks?
Bridges to Reading: Books recommended for readers ten years and older include: Raoul Wallenberg: The Man Who Stopped Death by Sharon Linnea, Jewish Publications Society, 1993; Walls: Resisting the Third Reich: One Woman's Story, by Hiltgunt Zassenhaus and Katherine Paterson, Beacon, 1993 (this book is about the experience of Ms. Zassenhaus, a translator for Scandinavian political prisoners, who smuggled food and medicine to them and later won a Nobel Peace Prize). Books recommended for older children include: Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed by Philip P. Hallie, HarperTorch Books, 1985 (this book is the story of Andre Trocme, a Huguenot minister and the Village of Le Chambon; Trocme and his parishioners saved thousands of Jewish lives during WW II, turning Le Chambon into a massive refugee hiding camp and way station to safety in Switzerland ); Return to Auschwitz by Kitty Hart, Athenium, 1982 (tells of the experience of a young woman and her mother who survived Auschwitz); Childhood by Jonah Oberski (tells of the experiences of a young child in Bergen-Belson), Gizelle, Save the Children by Gizelle Hirsch; and Women at War by Kevin Sim, (consisting of stories of five women who defied the Nazis and lived).

Other Movies on Related Topics: See the Subject Matter Index under World/WW II.

Links to the Internet: For an early and independent account of Schindler's work in WW II see "The Real Oskar Schindler" by Herbert Steinhouse, published in Saturday Night, April 1994. There are a host of web sites providing information on the Holocaust and the Nuremberg trials. An excellent source for information about the Holocaust is A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust. The Museum of Tolerance has an extensive site at Resources for Teachers. A high school teacher has created a syllabus for this film with suggested vocabulary and homework at History in Film: Schindler's List. See also The Holocaust/Shoah Page. Copies of the transcripts of the proceedings and other documents relating to the Nuremberg Trials are located at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials Web Page of the Avalon Project of the Yale Law School. See also Screenplay for "Schindler's List".

Classroom Projects:
  1. Pick three major religions and discover how the existence of events such as the Holocaust are explained in their theology. This can be done through reading and research or through interviews with religious leaders.


Bibliography: "The Real Oskar Schindler" by Herbert Steinhouse, published in Saturday Night, April 1994; Schindler's List by Thomas Keneally; "To A Nazi With Love": Schindler's List Debuts in Boston Spilling Holocaust Survivors' Memories", Bob Hohler and Brian McGrory, Boston Globe, Dec. 16, 1993.
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